Una experiencia de altura con la selección de Venezuela

No hay una receta. Y mucho menos, una que sea efectiva para jugar en la altura. Cada partido que se disputa en La Paz comienza a jugarse mucho tiempo antes. Y siempre, de cualquier modo, el efecto de la altura se siente, es inalterable y más aún: inevitable. Sin embargo, a lo largo de este tiempo, los equipos han trabajado distintas fórmulas para contrarrestar su impacto. 

La receta más utilizada en los últimos tiempos fue la de pasar la noche previa en Santa Cruz de la Sierra, en el llano, y viajar el mismo día del partido a La Paz. Pero, la selección de Venezuela viajó dos días antes del partido ante el equipo boliviano 

¿Qué se buscaba con este cambio de logística? Justamente, atenuar de alguna manera el efecto de la altura. ¿De qué forma? Buscando que, con mayor tiempo de estadía en la altura, los jugadores puedan elevar el nivel de saturación de oxígeno (también llamado consumo máximo de oxígeno). Un futbolista del llano pierde al jugar a 3.600 metros sobre el nivel del mar alrededor de un 20% o más de la capacidad del sistema aeróbico.  Una nueva forma de afrontar un desafío siempre complicado.

Utilizamos oxígeno antes del partido, durante el descanso del primer tiempo, como sildenafil o cialis para mejorar la oxigenación. Esto fue recomendado por el médico de la selección.

¿Y cómo se traduce esto en el campo cuando se juega en la altura?

Con los procesos descritos, al perder el deportista un alto porcentaje de la capacidad de su sistema aeróbico, pierde en todas sus capacidades: tiene menos explosión, fuerza de remate, velocidad, potencia, entre otros. El lactato (o ácido láctico) le produce agitación, pesadez muscular y empieza a perder coordinación motriz: no pasará el balón a su antojo, ni será tan preciso en todos sus movimientos. Peor aún, puede perder noción de factores espaciales, temporales, de fuerza, visión, y tomar decisiones incorrectas. 

En lo psicológico, pueden volverse menos tolerantes y realizar más faltas. Como anécdota; esto ya se puede empezar a sentir a los 5 minutos. Yo estaba sentado en el banco, imagínate los jugadores en el partido.

/ Kevy Oropeza

¿Cuáles son los métodos para tratar de contrarrestar al factor altura?

Los casos son tan variados como los organismos humanos. No hay preparación absoluta.  

Una de las medidas antes de este tipo de encuentros es preparar al futbolista con mayor rigor y exigencia en el entrenamiento anaeróbico (actividades de ejercicio breves basadas en mucha fuerza, a diferencia de lo aeróbico, que apunta más a la resistencia). 


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 Otra medida bastante utilizada es la aplicada por parte de la nutricionista del equipo; un régimen dietético que se aplica al menos una semana antes del partido en la altura. La dieta es rica en vitaminas B y C, magnesio, calcio y carbohidratos. Esto con el fin de acumular glucógeno en el músculo y compensar la falta de oxígeno. Obviamente trabajando para ayudar a adaptar el efecto fisiológico del jugador en la altura.  Eso no quiere decir que se gane o se pierda por la adaptaciones. 

El resultado deportivo ya es parte final de la preparación; si ganamos, celebramos, y si perdemos también celebramos que los jugadores terminen en condiciones óptimas de salud.

Otros métodos

Está también la cámara hipobárica, un método que se empleó en más de una ocasión en la selección, y que pareciera haberles resultado. Esta tiene dos funciones: entrenar a tripulaciones aéreas para la falta de oxígeno y cambios rápidos de presión en la cabina de vuelo; y evaluar la tolerancia a la hipoxia o falta de oxígeno en la altura. 

El método lo usan deportistas que quieren conocer cómo será su respuesta ante menor cantidad de oxígeno en el aire. Lo empleó la selección de Chile de Bielsa y la de Borghi. Lo interesante es que consiguieron ganar 2-0 en sus dos últimas visitas a La Paz, Bolivia. En el habitáculo, una motobomba puede reducir la presión del aire hasta simular una altitud superior a los 30 mil msnm. Se monitorea pulso, presión arterial y saturación de oxígeno. Se entregan los resultados y sugerencias de trabajo específico de cada evaluado para mejorar su respuesta.

Si bien los métodos parecen tener sentido, y hasta ciertos resultados que aparentemente los respaldan; no hay estudios a gran escala con conclusiones determinantes que los puedan corroborar. 

/Kevy Oropeza

Cómo driblar al mal de altura

Las condiciones ideales serían adaptarse por lo menos 35 o 40 días. Pero al ser esto imposible, ya que se juegan dobles fechas, lo más recomendable es llegar 6 horas antes Esto permitiría evitar el mal de altura; mareos, náuseas, malestar estomacal, debilidad y deshidratación. Este a veces aparece muchas horas después de haber llegado al lugar de altitud. Sin embargo, no reduce los efectos de desgaste físico descritos anteriormente.

Los efectos fisiológicos que leemos en las literatura se rompen en la práctica. 

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